Porting Replicant to Android 11¶
- Table of contents
- Porting Replicant to Android 11
- Building Replicant 11
- Source code
- Build dependencies
- Fixing the build environment
- Launching the build
- Install the images
- Get adb
- Boot progress
- Getting the latest changes
- Known working distributions
- Build VM
- Known issues
- Cleanups to be done
- Upstreaming status
- Graphics status
- Modem status
- Other attempts
- Known error messages that are safe to ignore
Active development has moved towards AOSP 11.The basic features working on Replicant 9 and 10 have been confirmed to work on Replicant 11, but not everything has been tested yet on either version. The source code and build instruction for both these previous versions have been kept to do regression tracking:
See RunningReplicant11 before installing Replicant 11 on your device to not break it.
Building Replicant 11¶
$ repo init -u https://git.replicant.us/replicant-next/manifest.git -b replicant-11-dev $ repo sync
Alternatively a shallow copy of the source tree can be fetched in order to save on disk space:
$ repo init -u https://git.replicant.us/replicant-next/manifest.git -b replicant-11-dev --depth=1 $ repo sync -c
To unshallow a specific module:
$ cd path/to/module $ git fetch --unshallow <remote>
While there are no official releases yet, there will be a
11-nlnet-eu-grant-825310-replicant-update tag that freezes the replicant-11 source code in order to enable anyone to review the work done as part of an NLnet grant.
If you want to checkout the source code at this tag, you will need to replace the
-b replicant-11-dev in the commands above by
-b refs/tags/<tagname>. For example:
$ repo init \ --depth=1 \ -u https://git.replicant.us/replicant-next/manifest.git \ -b refs/tags/11-nlnet-eu-grant-825310-replicant-update
For Trisquel 8 and 9¶
sudo apt-get install bc bison build-essential bsdmainutils ccache curl flex g++-multilib gcc-multilib gettext git gnupg gperf imagemagick lib32ncurses5-dev lib32readline-dev lib32z1-dev liblz4-tool libncurses5-dev libsdl1.2-dev libssl-dev libwxgtk3.0-dev libxml2 libxml2-utils lzop python-mako python3-mako pngcrush rsync schedtool squashfs-tools xsltproc zip zlib1g-dev sudo apt-get install gcc-5-arm-linux-gnueabi
You will also need to install repo as described in the bug #2199.
Fixing the build environment¶
Allow system binaries for building¶
By default, the Android 11 build system can only use the prebuilt binaries it ships.While having binary toolchains is better for reproducible builds, and that the binaries are free software, this creates a number of issues:
- We need to be able to rebuild the binaries, and so far no one did it yet.
- Binaries are way harder to trust than source code and not everyone trust Google.
As GNU/Linux distribution's tools can be rebuilt and are easier to trust, we are using that for now.
Java heap space¶
The Java heap size is automatically set according to the available system memory. On machines with 8 GB or less RAM, it is set to a value which is too low, and will result in the following error during the build:
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space
The heap size can be increased with an envirnoment variable:
$ export _JAVA_OPTIONS="-Xmx3g"
Reduce parallel jobs to avoid killed processes¶
Increasing the Java heap space is not enough to get a successful build on machines with 8 GB or less RAM. It is also necessary to reduce the number of parallel jobs, to avoid processes from being killed due to lack of memory. This typically happens during the build of
For greater speed, you may let your build run with the defaults, wait for it to fail due to killed processes, and then relunch the build with:
$ make -j1
By default, Ninja, the underlaying build system for Android, used when you run
make bacon, computes the number of parallel jobs according to the number of CPUs on your machine (typically #CPUs + 2 parallel jobs).
Launching the build¶
You can either launch builds with our wrapper script like that:
$ ./vendor/replicant/build.sh i9305
It will try to use all the the CPU cores you have available by using one job per processor + one extra job.
You can also manually launch the build with the usual AOSP commands (so you could adjust the number of jobs with -j for instance):
$ source build/envsetup.sh $ lunch replicant_i9305-userdebug $ make -j2
Install the images¶
From scratch¶Due to the bug #2235 we can't use the same commands than before with Replicant 9 and 10. Instead we have to install it in a different way:
- First we need to flash the images with
heimdall flash --BOOT boot.img --RECOVERY recovery.img --SYSTEM system.img
- Then we need to reboot to recovery during the boot by pressing the volume up, menu and power buttons
- Then we need to select
Wipe data/factory resetand then
Factory data reset
- And finally we can boot to Replicant 11 by selecting
Reboot the system now
Update previous installation¶
adb remount adb sync
As the device IDs are the ones given by the Linux kernel, they are not in the adb udev rules, so for now it requires to run adb as root:
$ sudo adb shell * daemon not running; starting now at tcp:5037 * daemon started successfully i9305:/ # $ sudo adb kill-server $ adb shell * daemon not running; starting now at tcp:5037 * daemon started successfully error: no devices/emulators found
So make sure to kill the adb-server and run it as root:
$ adb kill-server $ sudo adb shell * daemon not running; starting now at tcp:5037 * daemon started successfully i9305:/ #
You can also follow the boot progress with adb:
adb logcat adb logcat -b main
Note that the device can go into suspend at any time, so adb might be interrupted. That looks like that:
First you get a shell
$ sudo adb shell i9305:/ #
Then the connection is interrupted:
$ adb shell i9305:/ # [randomdev@fullyfreelaptop ]$
The effect with adb logcat is similar.
Getting the latest changes¶
- The repositories are being constantly modified with
git push --forceas we are trying things out, and don't want to make the commits history look too dirty, so be sure to backup your local changes.
- Sometimes the manifest repository is also modified with
git push --force. In that case the following commands will loose all the work you did locally but will make the repository consistent with upstream repositories again:
$ rm -rf .repo/manifests .repo/manifests.git .repo/manifest.xml $ repo init -u https://git.replicant.us/replicant-next/manifest.git -b replicant-11-dev $ repo sync --force-sync
- The following command might also be necessary to make the state consistent with upstream repositories again, when the manifest history wasn't rewritten, but it will also loose all the work you did locally:
$ repo sync --force-sync
Known working distributions¶
|Trisquel 8||Yes|| Tested with an lxc chroot:
* Worked fine before and it buildt images fine
* Doesn't work anymore in LXC in Parabola in due to cgroup API upgrades, it probably still works in chroots or as standalone installation
* Trisquel 8 is also not supported anymore by Trisquel
|Trisquel 9||Yes|| Tested with an lxc chroot:
* Builds images fine
|Trisquel 10||?|| Upgraded from a Trisquel 9 lxc chroot:
* Seems to build image fine, build from scratch not tried yet.
If you use Parabola, you may be interested in running Trisquel 9 in LXC.
To do that first debootstrap a Trisquel 9 rootfs.
Parabola's debootstrap does support Trisquel 9 and its manual has an example on how to do that for Trisquel 8:
$ man debootstrap [...] # debootstrap flidas flidas-root http://archive.trisquel.info/trisquel
So you just need to change from
$ man debootstrap [...] # debootstrap etiona etiona-root http://archive.trisquel.info/trisquel
Then you can use virt-manager to setup the LXC instance.The advantages of this solution are that:
- The LXC guest and host shares their resources (CPU, RAM) with almost no penalty
- Trisquel 9 is not a rolling release distribution
- you need to configure the Trisquel 9 LXC instance (vimrc, sshd_config, etc)
- It's more complicated to setup
- The Android build system may outputs a warning message about not being able to use namespaces which may become mandatory in newer Android versions
There is also some information in the Libreplanet wiki about the topic, like with the DistroExecutionEnvironments article.
It makes sense to move the information that are not Replicant specific there (or in another place) to make it easier to coordonate with with other distributions that may need specific FSDG distributions to be built, or software that needs to be deployed in specific distributions.
Trisquel 8 and 9¶
With Trisquel 8 and 9 we have an issue with the repo tool.
It tends to update itself automatically, so you might end in a situation like that:
$ repo --force-sync repo: error: Python 3 version is too old; Please use Python 3.6 or newer.
Both Trisquel 8 and Trisquel 9 don't have a recent enough python3 to run recent versions of repo.
There is a workaround described in the bug #2199.
Cleanups to be done¶
- Make adb work as user by using the right USB IDs, and make userspace do the USB setup.
Make the kernel not use hardcoded CMDLINE_FORCENot possible unless the bootloader is changed or Linux is very heavily patched.
- Make the kernel not use hardcoded partitions if possible (though we use system as root)
- Make a clean Gatekeeper HAL module implementation instead of using the same hack than goldfish
- Look at init.rc documentation to see if init.rc can be overriden clearly with the override statement to see if it's possible to keep the serial console patch for -eng
- The stock bootloader is incompatible with Linux, see BootloadersIncompatibleWithLinux for more information. So we maintain patches to enable the Galaxy SIII, and Galaxy Note II to boot with the stock bootloader. In the long run we need to look into using u-boot in the kernel partition as using u-boot instead of the stock bootloader currently require nonfree and non-redistributable software (BL1).
- For the patches that are not merged yet, see the issues of the redmine upstreaming sub-project
Progress of the graphics related tasks is tracked at GraphicsReplicant10.
- Fully tested under GNU/Linux and Android
- Can initialize completely the modem and receive messages (see the #1954 bug report for the logs)
- The Replicant 11 code still needs to be merged into upstream libsamsung-ipc (in https://git.replicant.us/replicant/hardware_replicant_libsamsung-ipc).
- Ported to Replicant 11: it does initialize the modem but Android doesn't find the SIM card yet.
- Tested and validated under Replicant 6 (doesn't break telephony)
- Code cleanup is needed
Right now the modem is started then stopped at boot, so to see it boot we need to start it with these commands:
$ sudo adb root $ adb shell $ adb start ril-daemon
Then we see the modem boot messages and also samsung-ipc messages arriving with the following command:
$ adb logcat -b radio
It's also possible to run ipc-modem under Android.
Modem status TODO¶
- Continue to clean up the libsamsung-ipc and libsamsung-ril patches, test the patches in Replicant 6 when applicable, and merge them in the upstream repositories.
- Convert the firmware loading driver to the upstream API and then adapt libsamsung-ipc for that. This should also benefit other devices like the Galaxy SIII 4G, and the Galaxy Note II 4G which probably don't need much more to get their modem supported by upstream Linux.
- Cleanup and convert the rest of the drivers to look like the ones for the Nokia N900 and adapt the userspace in libsamsung-ipc, and merge libsamsung-ipc support for that once the kernel API is stable.
- Add more tests. We should now have the infrastructure in libsamsung-ipc to use real samsung-ipc messages. In addition it might even be possible to use user mode Linux to do tests now that User mode Linux supports USB, though it requires coding something that sends URBs. User Mode Linux also has issues with i686 that need to be fixed (building on i686 fails, but building for i686 on x86_64 worked last time I tried).
First month of full time equivalent work:
||Only boots with graphics, not much more|
Builds under Trisquel8
* Boots with adb.
* Has ultra slow graphics
|14h||find, remove and document proprietary software in LineageOS 16|
|21h||find, remove and document privacy issues in LineageOS 16|
||Now in 5.3|
|7h||rebrand LineageOS as Replicant|
||See the modem status for more details|
|Total: 147h (~1 month)|
| * port libsamsung-ril and libsamsung-ipc to Android 9
* Make the modem driver and libsamsung-ipc work together
|157h||See the modem status for more details|
Look which sensor libraries can be used
|70h||Already done by the unofficial LineageOS port of the Galaxy SIII (i9300), needs testing|
|add support for Audio with the upstream kernel driver||70h|| Might be way faster, depending on what Android 9 uses
See also this bugreport
||14h|| * The source code on which the work was based changed from AOSP to an unofficial LineageOS port to a port of i9305 support for AOSP by Joonas to the official LineageOS so it's now supported by default
* The work to factorize the code between the i9300 and i9305 still need to be done
|create a recovery||21h|
|add internal WiFi support and validate the functionality||6h|
|add external WiFi dongles support||20h||External dongles support might be tricky|
* The installation instructions are now generic enough.
* Some long standing TODO were also done along the way like adding backup instructions for the EFS.
* The current instructions are still for Replicant 6.0 and will need to be updated for Replicant 9.0
|Estimate the amount of work to Reduce the attack surface||?|
|Estimate the amount of work to add in-system upgrades||?|
1 The generic instructions were tested at Install parties in Paris
Easy, because it's similar enough to the Galaxy SIII (I9300)¶
|Galaxy Note II (N7100)|
|port the EA8061 LCD Linux driver||35h|
|port the S6EVR02 LCD Linux driver||35h|
|port the MAX77693 flash led Linux driver||7h|
|android: add support for the Note II (N7100) and factorize the code with Galaxy SIII (i9300) and Galaxy SIII 4G (i9305)||14h||Should be similar to the Galaxy SIII|
|port the sensors libraries and other device specific libraries||70h||It's difficult to evaluate how much time it could take|
|add support for Audio with the upstream kernel driver||14h||Should be similar to the Galaxy SIII|
|Galaxy Note 8.0 (N5100) and 8.0 WiFi (N5110)|
|Evaluate the time required to do the port||14h||TODO|
Needs more work and unknown upstream Linux status¶
|Galaxy S II (i9100)||Linux: devboard dts upstream? unknown status|
|Galaxy Note (N7000)||unknown Linux upstream status|
|Galaxy Nexus (I9250)||OMAP4, no dts upstream|
|Galaxy Tab 2 7.0 (P3100), 7.0 WiFi (P3110), 10.1 (P5100), 10.1 WiFi (P5110)|
|GTA04 >= A4||TODO: a RIL needs to be written, userspace GPS support is missing, audio scenarios, etc|
Replicant 6.0 changes¶
See the Samsung-ipc page.
- It might be interesting to contact the people doing ports once we have something working well enough.
- It is also interesting to look at other attempts to understand if a given device is powerful enough to run Android 9 and what configuration was used to achieve it.
|i9300||CustomROMs||* February 8 2020 Pie release|
|i9300||Team InFusion||* August 20 2019 Pie release|| Issues: * Uses a Samsung kernel
* Uses too many nonfree libraries
=> Probably nothing we could reuse from its code
|n7100||ComicoTeam||* January 4 2020 Pie release|
|i9100||rINanDO|| * March 20 2020 Pie release
* July 19 2020 Android 10 release
Links for other attempts¶
CustomROMs i9300 components¶
|hardware/samsung/macloader||Loads the MAC Address of the WiFi network interface||Might be useful|
|hardware/samsung/wifiloader||Loads the wifi kernel module (like modprobe) and setup firmware filesystems permissions||May be useful|
|hardware/samsung/audio||seems to contains ril related stuff as well||Look if the ril stuff is required, go for standard audio|
|hardware/samsung/lineagehw/hidl/livedisplay||livedisplay is a feature similar to what redshift does on GNU/Linux||Not sure if it works with mainline|
|hardware/samsung/exynos/multimedia/utils/||seem meant for audio/video decoding offload||assembly obtimized color conversion and resize code||check assembly code license, not sure if useful|
|all other directories in hardware/samsung/exynos/||nonfree firmwares, nonfree software?, smdk kernel?||audio/video decoding offload||Avoid using that|
|hardware/samsung/exynos3||nonfree firmwares?, nonfree software?, smdk kernel?||some light libraries, display stuff (gralloc, etc), 2D acceleration (FIMG), camera (FIMC), 3D acceleration, etc||Avoid using that for now|
Known error messages that are safe to ignore¶
- TestHarnessModeService: Failed to start Test Harness Mode; no implementation of PersistentDataBlockManagerInternal was bound
- JniUtils: Could not load native library jni_latinimegoogle
- Android build requirements - hardware and software
- Why LineageOS Developers are building Android Go-optimized custom ROMs
- Android Go recommended default values for propreties for optimization
- Team InFusion i9300 optimized system.prop
- Hack to fix high CPU usage caused by logd
- Use low-end video codecs
- Optimize ActivityManager cached apps
- Use 1Gb Dalvik config